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Menstruation Problems
Other Names
Menses, Mentrual, Menstruation.

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Description
Menstruation refers to a periodic change occurring in human beings and the higher apes, and consists chiefly in a flow of blood from the cavity of the womb, and associated with various slight constitutional disturbances. It begins between the ages of 12 and 15, as a rule, although its onset may be delayed till as late as 20, or it may begin as early as 10 or 11. Along with its first appearance the body develops the secondary sex characteristics of the sex: e.g. enlargement of the breasts, characteristic hair distribution. The duration of each menstrual period varies in different persons from two to eight days. It recurs in most cases with regularity, most commonly at intervals of twenty-eight days or thirty days, less often with intervals of twenty-one or twenty-seven days, ceasing only during pregnancy and lactation, till the age of 45 or 50 arrives, when it stops altogether, as a rule ceasing early if it has begun early, and vice versa. The final stoppage is known as the menopause or the climacteric.

Menstruation depends upon a functioning ovary and this upon a healthy pituitary gland. The regular rhythm may depend upon a center in the hypothalamus, which is in close connection with the pituitary. After menstruation the denuded uterine endometrium is regenerated under the influence of the follicular hormone, oestradiol. The epithelium of the endometrium proliferates, and about a fortnight after the beginning of menstruation great development of the endometrial glands takes place under the influence of progesterone, the hormone secreted by the corpus luteum. These changes are made for the reception of the fertilized ovum. Without fertilization the uterine endometrium breaks down in the subsequent menstrual discharge.

Disorders of menstruation In most healthy women, menstruation proceeds regularly for thirty years or more, with the exceptions connected with childbirth. In many women, however, menstruation may be absent, excessive or painful. The term amenorrhoea is applied to the condition of absent menstruation. The terms menorrhagia and metrorrhagia describe excessive menstrual loss, the former if the excess occurs at the regular periods, the latter if it is irregular. Dysmenorrhoea is the name given to painful menstruation.

Amenorrhoea If menstruation has never occurred, the amenorrhoea is termed primary. If it ceases after having once become established it is known as secondary amenorrhoea. The only value of these terms is that some patients with either chromosome abnormalities or malformations of the genital tract fall into the primary category. Otherwise, the age of the onset of symptoms is more important.

The causes of amenorrhoea are numerous and treatment requires dealing with the primary cause. The commonest cause is pregnancy. Psychological stress or eating disorders can cause amenorrhoea. Poor nutrition or loss of weight by dieting may do so and any serious underlying disease such as tuberculosis or malaria may also result in the cessation of periods. The excess secretion of prolactln, whether this is the result of a micro-adenoma of the pituitary gland or whether it is drug induced, will cause amenorrhoea and possibly galactorrhoea as well, malfunction of the pituitary gland will result in a failure to produce the gonadotrophic hormones with consequent amenorrhoea. Excessive production of cortisol, as in cushing's syndrome, or of androgens, as in the adreno-genital syndrome or the polycystic ovary syndrome, will result in amenorrhoea. Amenorrhoea occasionally follows use of the oral contraceptive pill and may be associated with both hypothyroidism and obesity.

Patients should be reassured that amenorrhoea can often be successfully treated and does not necessarily affect their ability to have normal sexual relations and to conceive. When weight loss is the cause of amenorrhoea, restoration of body weight alone can result in spontaneous menstruation. Patients with raised concentration of serum gonadotrophin hormones have primary ovarian failure. It is not amenable to treatment. Cyclical oestrogen/ progestogen therapy will usually establish withdrawal bleeding. If the amenorrhoea is due to mild pituitary failure menstruation may return after treatment with clomiphene, a non-steroidal agent which competes for oestrogen receptors in the hypothalamus. The patients who are most likely to respond to clomiphene are those who have some evidence of endogenous oestrogen and gonadotrophin production.

Irregular Menstruation This is a change from the normal monthly cycle of menstruation, the duration of bleeding or the amount of blood lost (menorrhagia). Such changes may be the result of an upset in the balance of oestroge hormones and progesterone hormones which between them control the cycle. Cycles may be irregular after the menarche and before the menopause. Unsuspected pregnancy may manifest itself as an 'irregularity' as can an early miscarriage. Disorders of the uterus, ovaries or organs in the pelvic cavity can also cause irregular menstruation. Women with the condition should seek medical advice.

Menorrhagia Excessive menstruation may be due to the same systemic conditions which produce amenorrhoea. The underlying disorder should be treated and this will usually result in restoration of a normal cycle. Menorrhagia may occur when menstruation first starts and during the months leading up to the menopause, when periods also tend to become irregular. Local conditions in the reproductive tract are the commonest cause of menorrhagia, often accompanied by an irregular cycle (metrorrhagia). polypus, fibroid, and other turnouts, displacements of the uterus and inflammation following childbirth or miscarriage are the most common causes of this type. Treatment involves remedying the local cause.

dysmenorrhoea This varies from discomfort to serious pain and sometimes vomiting and general malaise. Anaemia is sometimes a cause of painful menstruation as well as of stoppage of this function.

Inflammation of the uterus, ovaries or the fallopian tubes is a common cause of dysmenorrhoea which comes on for the first time late in life, especially when the trouble follows the birth of a child. In this case the pain exists more or less at all times, but is aggravated at the periods. Treatment with analgesics and remedying the underlying cause is called for.

Many cases of dysmenorrhoea appear with the beginning of menstrual life, and accompany every period. It has been estimated that 5 to 10 per cent of girls in their late teens or early twenties are severely incapacitated by dysmenorrhoea for several hours each month. Various causes have been suggested for the pain, one being an excessive production of prostaglandins. There may be a psychological factor in some sufferers and, whether this is the result of inadequate sex instruction, fear, family, school or work problems, it is important to offer advice and support, which in itself may resolve the dysmenorrhoea. Symptomatic relief is of value.

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Menstruation Problems - Symptoms, Indications and Actions

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Coriander Pure Essential Oil

Coriander Pure Essential Oil

Geranium Pure Essential Oil

Geranium Pure Essential Oil

Parsley Pure Essential Oil

Parsley Pure Essential Oil

Calamus Root Pure Essential Oil

Calamus Root Pure Essential Oil

Sage Dalmatian Pure Essential Oil

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Cramp Bark (Viburnum) Tea

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Damiana - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

Damiana - Salve Ointment

Damiana - Salve Ointment

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Anise Seed - Salve Ointment

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Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

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Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Strawberry Flavored

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Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Strawberry Flavored

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Strawberry Flavored

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Calamus Root - Cream

Calamus Root - Cream

Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

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Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Strawberry Flavored

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Fennel Seed - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - No Flavor

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Damiana - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Chocolate Flavored

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Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Chocolate Flavored

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Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Chocolate Flavored

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Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Chocolate Flavored

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Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Fennel Seed - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Fennel Seed - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Vanilla Flavored

Damiana - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Damiana - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Elecampane Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Calamus Root - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Horehound - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Fennel Seed - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored

Fennel Seed - Glycerite Liquid Extract (1:5) - Mint Flavored


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